15 animals in Thailand have been designated reserved species by The Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act of BE 2535.
Those are Javan rhinoceros, Sumatran rhinoceros, kouprey, eld's deer, Schomburgk's deer, serow, goral, Malayan tapir,
wild water buffalo, fea's barking deer, marble cat, sarus crane, gurney's pitta, white-eyed River-Martin and dugong.
They are defined as rare, endangered and those species that are already extinct. The Act must be imposed so as to
protect the existing ones as well as to prevent the dead animals being transferred or traded to overseas. As the fact
that the wildlife situation in Thailand has changed as many species were threatened and on the brink to extinction,
improvement and amendment of the previous Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act has been made on 19
February 1992 (BE 2535).
Important prohibitions extracted from Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act are following:
- It is prohibited to hunt, attempt to hunt, trade, export or import the reserved animals and protected animals
except for gaining permission from the Permanent Secretary of National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation.
The penalties are imprisonment up to 4 years or fine up to 40,000 Baht or both.
- It is prohibited to possess reserved animals and protected animals except for gaining permission from the authority.
The penalties are imprisonment up to 3 years, fine up to 30,000 Baht or both. In the case of possessed animals
that come from improper breeding, the penalties are imprisonment up to 1 year or fine up to 10,000 Baht or both.
- It is prohibited to breed reserved animals and protected animals except for gaining permission from the authority.
The penalties are imprisonment up to 3 years or fine up to 30,000 Baht or both.
- In case of the killings is done for self-protection, protection of others or properties, penalties are exempted.
- Prohibition to possess and trade of reserved animals and protected animals include their eggs and corpse.
- It is prohibited to keep or endanger those animals'dwellings except for edible-nest swiftlets
which also requires permission.
: Rhinoceros sondaicus
: It was once exhibited at Dusit Zoo, Chiangmai Zoo.
Javan Rhinoceros is a mammal. The height to the shoulders can reach 1.60 - 1.75 m and
weigh around 1,500 - 2,000 kg. Wallowing in mud is common behaviour which protects its skin from
dryness and prevents from the insect or parasite infestation. Although they have bad eye sight,
their olfactory sense is remarkable. This herbivorous animal likes eating young foliage, leaves and fruit.
The gestation period is 16 months of a single calf. The lifespan is around 50 years. At present,
there are only 20 - 30 Javan Rhinos left. They can be found in a national park in Vietnam.
: Didermocerus sumatraensis
: Dusit Zoo and Chiang Mai Zoo
Sumatran Rhino is the smallest species of rhino. Its height to the shoulders reaches 1 - 1.4 m and weight
around 900 - 1,000 kg. This 2-horn rhino is very good at climbing trees. When it encounters obstacles
in front, it will use the head to push it away from its trail. It has brilliant olfactory sense. Its food
includes twigs, foliage and fruit. The gestation period is 7 - 8 months of a single calf. At present,
Sumatran Rhino is rare and expected to be found in deep forest on Thai-Burmese and Thai-Malaysian borders.
The latest report incited that its footprints are found in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary in Chaiyaphum in 1996.
A few of them scatter in the forests in Kaeng Krchan National Park in Petchaburi, Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife
Sanctuary in Uthaithani, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary in Narathiwat and Khao Sok National Park in Surat Thani.
: Bos sauveli
Kouprey is the same family as guar and banteng. Its height to the shoulders reaches 1.7 - 1.9 m
and weight around 700 - 900 kg. Kouprey lives in a herd of 2 - 20. It is an agile animal. Female kouprey normally
leads the herd in search of food and flee from enemies. The biggest male kouprey is the leader of the herd.
Its food includes grasses, foliage and sometimes salt licks. Its gestation is 9 - 10 months of a single calf.
It is found only in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Information about kouprey is deficient. It is often
hunt as its horns are wanted amongst collectors. Extinction is possible.
: Cervus eldi
: Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Its height to the shoulders is 1.2 - 1.3 m and weight around 95 - 150 kg. Fur is reddish brown colour.
A fawn has white spots on the body and fades away when it is fully grown. A stag has a thick and long mane and antlers
which look different from other deer species. It lives in a small herd and seeks food both at day and night time.
Its food is grasses and fruit. The gestation is around 7 - 8 months of a single fawn. It is expected that
at present Eld’s deer can be found in Phanom Dong Rak Mountain Range on Thai - Cambodia border and Tanao Si
Mountain Range on Thai - Burmese border.
: Cervus schomburgki
Schomburgk’s deer was a medium size deer and known for its regal antlers. Its height to the shoulders was 1 m.
Only the stag had antlers which branched out like a basket. It lived in a small herd in swampy plains and avoided
dense vegetation to avoid its antlers getting stuck in tangled vines. Its food was young grasses, fruit and foliage.
It went extinct around 1932 by the hand of human.
: Capricornis sumatraensis
Serow is a species of goat antelope. Its height to the shoulders is 85 - 94 cm. and weight 85 - 140 kg. The dwelling
is around the cliff on a mountain and small cave. It is an agile and fast animal and can swim across an island.
Its senses of sight, hearing and smell are exceptional. The gestation period is 7 - 8 months of a single fawn.
Its food is plants. The number of serows has dramatically decreased as it is hunt for the antlers
: Naemorhedus griseus
It looks similar to goat at the height to the shoulders of 50 - 70 cm and weight around 22 - 23 kg.
It possesses very strong legs which are used to jump on the cliffs. It is found on the mountain at 1,000 m
above the sea level where the climate is cool. Its food includes plants and shrubs on the mountain ridge and cliff.
The gestation period is 6 - 8 months. The lifespan is around 8 - 10 years.
Scientific name: Tapirus indicus
Malayan Tapir looks like a combination of various animals; round body like a pig, trunk like elephant, paws like rhino.
The white-coloured hair extends from its shoulders to its rump. The head, shoulders and legs are black. It can weigh
approximately 250 - 300 kg. Its olfactory and hearing are exceptional. Tapir is mainly active at night and search for
food alone in primary forest. Its food is grasses, aquatic plants, foliage, young twigs, fruit and bushes. Despite
its fat body, tapir is good at climbing trees and swimming. It also prefers wallowing in mud. The gestation period
is approximately 13 months and only 1 calf is born.
Wild Water Buffalo
: Bubalus bubalis
Wild water buffalo is normally bigger than buffalo and is quite agile. It grows approximately 1.6 - 1.9 m and can
weigh around 800 - 1,200 kg. It always wallows in mud pool so that the body is coated and protected from infestation.
It is found in herd and can become very fierce when it is injured. The food is foliage, grasses and bamboo shoot.
The gestation period is 10 months. A single calf is born. At present, wild water buffalo is found only in Huai
Kha Kheng Wildlife Sanctuary in Uthai Thani.
Fea's Barking Deer
: Muntiacus feai
Fea's barking deer is similar to common barking deer but the colour of the body is darker, short tail with
dark colour on the top and white on the base. Its body length is approximately 88 centimetres with tail of
10 cm long. It weighs around 22 kg. The gestation period is 6 months of a single fawn. It shreds the antlers
once a year. It inhabits solitarily in damp climate such as on hillside or in a valley in rainforest.
It prefers living near water sources as it cannot live in a shortage of water as long as barking deer and
searches for food at dusk with diets of foliage, grasses and fruit. It is found in pair only in mating season.
Wild Water Buffalo
: Pardofelis marmorata
Its size is approximately the same as domestic cat with a longer and thicker tail and weight around 4 - 5 kg.
The pattern of its coat is blotches and bands similar to one of clouded leopard. It inhabits in tropical rain
forest and tropical evergreen forest. This nocturnal cat dwells on trees and searches for food at night.
The diets are insects, snakes, birds, rodents and small monkeys. Marbled cat is rare to find. The report cited
that it is found in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Pang Sida National Park, Khao Yai National Park and Tab Lan National Park.
: Grus antigone
Sarus crane is a large crane found in wet paddy fields and swamps near forests. When it stands, its height
reaches around 150 cm. It forages in pair and family group. It is believed to pair for life. However, the
case of mate replacement has been recorded. The diets of the Sarus crane are insects, reptiles, aquatic animals,
grains and rice seedlings. It lays 2 eggs at a time. At present, it is no longer found in Thailand due to hunting
and invaded habitats. However, it still exists in Laos and Cambodia.
: Pitta gurneyi
The body length of Gurney’s Pitta is around 21 cm. It nests in thorny salak or ratten bushes near small
stream to facilitate its foraging. Worms, grubs, cicadas, grasshoppers, snails and frogs are its food.
When it is frightened, it will call out to alert others. It lays 3 - 4 eggs a time. Approximately 100 Gurney’s
Pittas are found in Khao Pra - bang Kram (Khao Nor Ju Ji) in Krabi. It is on the brink to extinction as
its habitats have been critically invaded.
White-eyed River Martin
: Pseudochelidon sirintarae
This endemic bird was found in Bueng Boraphet in Nakhon Sawan. It was first found in Thailand in 1968.
Yet, it is believed that it is an extinct species. Its body length is approximately 15 cm. with greenish
black plumage, white rump and a tail which has two elongated slender central tail feathers with long narrow
racquets at the tips, white eyes, greenish-yellow bill. It lived in a flock in reed and willow leaves.
There is little study on its behaviour, breeding and laying eggs. It is assumed that it caught insects
in the air like other swallows.
: Dugong dugon
Dugong, as known as sea cow, sea pig or sea camel, is not fish but mammal inhabiting in coastal areas.
It has no fin and weighs around 300 kg. It lives in a large family and many families forage together.
The diets include sea-grass on the coast. The gestation period is 1 year and it bears one calf at a time.
40 - 50 dugongs are currently found around Koh Libong and Hat Chao Mai in Trang.