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Reserved Animals
15 animals in Thailand have been designated reserved species by The Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act of BE 2535. Those are Javan rhinoceros, Sumatran rhinoceros, kouprey, eld's deer, Schomburgk's deer, serow, goral, Malayan tapir, wild water buffalo, fea's barking deer, marble cat, sarus crane, gurney's pitta, white-eyed River-Martin and dugong.

They are defined as rare, endangered and those species that are already extinct. The Act must be imposed so as to protect the existing ones as well as to prevent the dead animals being transferred or traded to overseas. As the fact that the wildlife situation in Thailand has changed as many species were threatened and on the brink to extinction, improvement and amendment of the previous Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act has been made on 19 February 1992 (BE 2535).

Important prohibitions extracted from Wild Animal Reservation and Protection Act are following:
Javan Rhinoceros
Scientific name : Rhinoceros sondaicus
Exhibited at : It was once exhibited at Dusit Zoo, Chiangmai Zoo.
Javan Rhinoceros is a mammal. The height to the shoulders can reach 1.60 - 1.75 m and weigh around 1,500 - 2,000 kg. Wallowing in mud is common behaviour which protects its skin from dryness and prevents from the insect or parasite infestation. Although they have bad eye sight, their olfactory sense is remarkable. This herbivorous animal likes eating young foliage, leaves and fruit. The gestation period is 16 months of a single calf. The lifespan is around 50 years. At present, there are only 20 - 30 Javan Rhinos left. They can be found in a national park in Vietnam.
Sumatran Rhinoceros
Scientific name : Didermocerus sumatraensis
Exhibited at : Dusit Zoo and Chiang Mai Zoo
Sumatran Rhino is the smallest species of rhino. Its height to the shoulders reaches 1 - 1.4 m and weight around 900 - 1,000 kg. This 2-horn rhino is very good at climbing trees. When it encounters obstacles in front, it will use the head to push it away from its trail. It has brilliant olfactory sense. Its food includes twigs, foliage and fruit. The gestation period is 7 - 8 months of a single calf. At present, Sumatran Rhino is rare and expected to be found in deep forest on Thai-Burmese and Thai-Malaysian borders. The latest report incited that its footprints are found in Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary in Chaiyaphum in 1996. A few of them scatter in the forests in Kaeng Krchan National Park in Petchaburi, Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary in Uthaithani, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary in Narathiwat and Khao Sok National Park in Surat Thani.
Scientific name : Bos sauveli
Kouprey is the same family as guar and banteng. Its height to the shoulders reaches 1.7 - 1.9 m and weight around 700 - 900 kg. Kouprey lives in a herd of 2 - 20. It is an agile animal. Female kouprey normally leads the herd in search of food and flee from enemies. The biggest male kouprey is the leader of the herd. Its food includes grasses, foliage and sometimes salt licks. Its gestation is 9 - 10 months of a single calf. It is found only in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Information about kouprey is deficient. It is often hunt as its horns are wanted amongst collectors. Extinction is possible.
Eld's Deer
Scientific name : Cervus eldi
Exhibited at : Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Its height to the shoulders is 1.2 - 1.3 m and weight around 95 - 150 kg. Fur is reddish brown colour. A fawn has white spots on the body and fades away when it is fully grown. A stag has a thick and long mane and antlers which look different from other deer species. It lives in a small herd and seeks food both at day and night time. Its food is grasses and fruit. The gestation is around 7 - 8 months of a single fawn. It is expected that at present Eld’s deer can be found in Phanom Dong Rak Mountain Range on Thai - Cambodia border and Tanao Si Mountain Range on Thai - Burmese border.
Schomburgk's Deer
Scientific name : Cervus schomburgki
Schomburgk’s deer was a medium size deer and known for its regal antlers. Its height to the shoulders was 1 m. Only the stag had antlers which branched out like a basket. It lived in a small herd in swampy plains and avoided dense vegetation to avoid its antlers getting stuck in tangled vines. Its food was young grasses, fruit and foliage. It went extinct around 1932 by the hand of human.
Scientific name : Capricornis sumatraensis
Serow is a species of goat antelope. Its height to the shoulders is 85 - 94 cm. and weight 85 - 140 kg. The dwelling is around the cliff on a mountain and small cave. It is an agile and fast animal and can swim across an island. Its senses of sight, hearing and smell are exceptional. The gestation period is 7 - 8 months of a single fawn. Its food is plants. The number of serows has dramatically decreased as it is hunt for the antlers
Scientific name : Naemorhedus griseus
It looks similar to goat at the height to the shoulders of 50 - 70 cm and weight around 22 - 23 kg. It possesses very strong legs which are used to jump on the cliffs. It is found on the mountain at 1,000 m above the sea level where the climate is cool. Its food includes plants and shrubs on the mountain ridge and cliff. The gestation period is 6 - 8 months. The lifespan is around 8 - 10 years.
Malayan Tapir
Scientific name: Tapirus indicus
Malayan Tapir looks like a combination of various animals; round body like a pig, trunk like elephant, paws like rhino. The white-coloured hair extends from its shoulders to its rump. The head, shoulders and legs are black. It can weigh approximately 250 - 300 kg. Its olfactory and hearing are exceptional. Tapir is mainly active at night and search for food alone in primary forest. Its food is grasses, aquatic plants, foliage, young twigs, fruit and bushes. Despite its fat body, tapir is good at climbing trees and swimming. It also prefers wallowing in mud. The gestation period is approximately 13 months and only 1 calf is born.
Wild Water Buffalo
Scientific name : Bubalus bubalis
Wild water buffalo is normally bigger than buffalo and is quite agile. It grows approximately 1.6 - 1.9 m and can weigh around 800 - 1,200 kg. It always wallows in mud pool so that the body is coated and protected from infestation. It is found in herd and can become very fierce when it is injured. The food is foliage, grasses and bamboo shoot. The gestation period is 10 months. A single calf is born. At present, wild water buffalo is found only in Huai Kha Kheng Wildlife Sanctuary in Uthai Thani.
Fea's Barking Deer
Scientific name : Muntiacus feai
Fea's barking deer is similar to common barking deer but the colour of the body is darker, short tail with dark colour on the top and white on the base. Its body length is approximately 88 centimetres with tail of 10 cm long. It weighs around 22 kg. The gestation period is 6 months of a single fawn. It shreds the antlers once a year. It inhabits solitarily in damp climate such as on hillside or in a valley in rainforest. It prefers living near water sources as it cannot live in a shortage of water as long as barking deer and searches for food at dusk with diets of foliage, grasses and fruit. It is found in pair only in mating season.
Wild Water Buffalo
Scientific name : Pardofelis marmorata
Its size is approximately the same as domestic cat with a longer and thicker tail and weight around 4 - 5 kg. The pattern of its coat is blotches and bands similar to one of clouded leopard. It inhabits in tropical rain forest and tropical evergreen forest. This nocturnal cat dwells on trees and searches for food at night. The diets are insects, snakes, birds, rodents and small monkeys. Marbled cat is rare to find. The report cited that it is found in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Pang Sida National Park, Khao Yai National Park and Tab Lan National Park.
Sarus Crane
Scientific name : Grus antigone
Sarus crane is a large crane found in wet paddy fields and swamps near forests. When it stands, its height reaches around 150 cm. It forages in pair and family group. It is believed to pair for life. However, the case of mate replacement has been recorded. The diets of the Sarus crane are insects, reptiles, aquatic animals, grains and rice seedlings. It lays 2 eggs at a time. At present, it is no longer found in Thailand due to hunting and invaded habitats. However, it still exists in Laos and Cambodia.
Gurney's Pitta
Scientific name : Pitta gurneyi
The body length of Gurney’s Pitta is around 21 cm. It nests in thorny salak or ratten bushes near small stream to facilitate its foraging. Worms, grubs, cicadas, grasshoppers, snails and frogs are its food. When it is frightened, it will call out to alert others. It lays 3 - 4 eggs a time. Approximately 100 Gurney’s Pittas are found in Khao Pra - bang Kram (Khao Nor Ju Ji) in Krabi. It is on the brink to extinction as its habitats have been critically invaded.
White-eyed River Martin
Scientific name : Pseudochelidon sirintarae
This endemic bird was found in Bueng Boraphet in Nakhon Sawan. It was first found in Thailand in 1968. Yet, it is believed that it is an extinct species. Its body length is approximately 15 cm. with greenish black plumage, white rump and a tail which has two elongated slender central tail feathers with long narrow racquets at the tips, white eyes, greenish-yellow bill. It lived in a flock in reed and willow leaves. There is little study on its behaviour, breeding and laying eggs. It is assumed that it caught insects in the air like other swallows.
Scientific name : Dugong dugon
Dugong, as known as sea cow, sea pig or sea camel, is not fish but mammal inhabiting in coastal areas. It has no fin and weighs around 300 kg. It lives in a large family and many families forage together. The diets include sea-grass on the coast. The gestation period is 1 year and it bears one calf at a time. 40 - 50 dugongs are currently found around Koh Libong and Hat Chao Mai in Trang.