Asia, making it a natural gateway to Indochina, Myanmar and Southern China. Its shape and geography divide into four natural
regions : the mountains and forests of the North; the vast rice fields of the Central Plains; the semi-arid farm lands of the
Northeast plateau; and the tropical islands and long coastline of the peninsula South.
The country comprises 76 provinces that are further divided into districts, sub-districts and villages. Bangkok is the capital
city and centre of political, commercial, industrial and cultural activities. It is also the seat of Thailand's revered Royal
Family, with His Majesty the King recognized as Head of State, Head of the Armed Forces, Upholder of the Buddhist religion and
Upholder of all religions.
Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej, or King Rama IX, the ninth king of the
Chakri Dynasty, the present king. The King has reigned for more than half a century, making him the longest reigning Thai
monarch. Thailand embraces a rich diversity of cultures and traditions. With its proud history, tropical climate and
renowned hospitality, the Kingdom is a never-ending source of fascination and pleasure for international visitors.
The kingdom of Thailand lies in the heart of Southeast Neighboring countries:
Myanmar - west and north
Lao P.D.R. - north and northeast
Cambodia - southeast and
Malaysia - south
Thailand can best be described as tropical and humid for the majority of the country during most of the year. The area of
Thailand north of Bangkok has a climate determined by three seasons whilst the southern peninsular region of Thailand has
In northern Thailand the seasons are clearly defined. Between November and May the weather is mostly dry, however this is
broken up into the periods November to February and March to May. The later of these two periods has the higher relative
temperatures as although the northeast monsoon does not directly effect the northern area of Thailand, it does cause
cooling breezes from November to February. The other northern season is from May to November and is dominated by the
southwest monsoon, during which time rainfall in the north is at its heaviest.
The southern region of Thailand really has only two seasons -- the wet and the dry. These seasons do not run at the
same time on both the east and west side of the peninsular. On the west coast the southwest monsoon brings rain
and often heavy storms from April through to October, whilst on the east coast the most rain falls between September and
Overall the southern parts of Thailand get by far the most rain with around 2,400 millimeters every year, compared with
the central and northern regions of Thailand, both of which get around 1,400 millimeters.
Spoken and written Thai remain largely incomprehensible to the casual visitor. However, English is widely understood,
particularly in Bangkok where it is almost the major commercial language. English and other European languages are spoken
in most hotels, shops and restaurants, in major tourist destinations, and Thai-English road and street signs are
Thailand is one of the most strongly Buddhist countries in the world. The national religion is Theravada Buddhism,
a branch of Hinayana Buddhism, practiced by more than 90 % of all Thais.
The remainder of the population adheres to lslam, Christianity, Hinduism and other faiths all of which are allowed
full freedom of expression. Buddhism continues to cast strong influence on daily life. Senior monks are highly revered. Thus,
in towns and villages, the temple (wat) is the heart of social and religious life. Meditation, one of the most popular aspects
of Buddhism, is practiced regularly by numerous Thai as a means of promoting inner peace and happiness. Visitors, too, can learn
the fundamentals of this practice at several centres in Bangkok and elsewhere in the country.
Throughout its 800-year history, Thailand can boast the distinction of being the only country in Southeast Asia never
to have been colonized. Its history is divided into five major periods.
Nanchao Period (650-1250 A.D.)
The Thai people founded their kingdom in the southern part of China, which is Yunnan, Kwangsi and Canton today.
A great number of people migrated south as far as the Chao Phraya Basin and settled down over the Central Plain under
the sovereignty of the Khmer Empire, whose culture they probably accepted. The Thai people founded their independent state of
Sukhothai around 1238 A.D., which marks the beginning of the Sukhothai Perio.
Sukhothai Period (1238-1378 A.D.)
Thais began to emerge as a dominant force in the region in the13th century, gradually asserting independence
from existing Khmer and Mon kingdoms. Called by its rulers "the dawn of happiness", this is often considered
the golden era of Thai history, an ideal Thai state in a land of plenty governed by paternal and benevolent kings,
the most famous of whom was King Ramkhamhaeng the Great. However in 1350, the mightier state of Ayutthaya exerted its
influence over Sukhothai.
Ayutthaya Period (1350-1767)
The Ayutthaya kings adopted Khmer cultural influences from the very beginning. No longer the paternal and accessible
rulers that the kings of Sukhothai had been, Ayutthaya's sovereigns were absolute monarchs and assumed
the title devaraja (god-king). The early part of this period saw Ayutthaya extend its sovereignty over neighboring Thai
principalities and come into conflict with its neighbours, During the 17th century, Siam started diplomatic and commercial
relations with western countries. In 1767, a Burmese invasion succeeded in capturing Ayutthaya. Despite their overwhelming
victory, the Burmese did not retain control of Siam for long. A young general named Phya Taksin and his followers broke through
the Burmese and escaped to Chantaburi. Seven months after the fall of Ayutthaya, he and his forces sailed back to the capital
and expelled the Burmese occupation garrison.
Thon Buri Period (1767-1772)
General Taksin, as he is popularly known, decided to transfer the capital from Ayutthaya to a site nearer
to the sea which would facilitate foreign trade, ensure the procurement of arms, and make defense and withdrawal easier in
case of a renewed Burmese attack. He established his new capital at Thon Buri on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River. The rule
of Taksin was not an easy one. The lack of central authority since the fall of Ayutthaya led to the rapid disintegration of
the kingdom, and Taksin's reign was spent reuniting the provinces.
Rattanakosin Period (1782 - the Present)
After Taksin's death, General Chakri became the first king of the Chakri Dynasty, Rama I, ruling from
1782 to 1809. His first action as king was to transfer the royal capital across the river from Thon Buri to Bangkok and build the
Grand Palace. Rama II (1809-1824) continued the restoration begun by his predecessor. King Nang Klao, Rama III (1824-1851)
reopened relations with Western nations and developed trade with China. King Mongkut, Rama IV, (1851-1868) of "The King and I"
concluded treaties with European countries, avoided colonialization and established modern Thailand. He made many
social and economic reforms during his reign.
King Chulalongkorn, Rama V (1869-1910) continued his father's tradition of reform, abolishing slavery and improving the public
welfare and administrative system. Compulsory education and other educational reforms were introduced by King Vajiravudh,
Rama VI (1910-1925). During the reign of King Prajadhipok, (1925-1935), Thailand changed from an absolute monarchy to a
constitutional monarchy. The king abdicated in 1933 and was succeeded by his nephew, King Ananda Mahidol (1935-1946). The
country's name was changed from Siam to Thailand with the advent of a democratic government in 1939. Our present monarch, King
Bhumibol Adulyadej, is King Rama IX of the Chakri Dynasty.
Throughout her long history, Thailand has gently absorbed immigrants. Many were skilled as writers, painters, sculptors,
dancers, musicians and architects, and helped enrich indigenous culture. People inhabiting Thailand today share rich
ethnic diversity - mainly Thai, Mon, Khmer, Laotian, Chinese, Malay, Persian and Indian stock - with the result that
there is no typically Thai physiognomy or physique. There are petite Thais, statuesque Thais, round-faced Thais,
dark-skinned Thais and light-skinned Thais. Some 80% of all Thais are connected in some way with agriculture which, in
varying degrees, influences and is influenced by the religious ceremonies and festivals that help make Thailand such a
Time in Thailand is 7 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+ 7).